How Congress Regulates the Executive Branch
Congress is an institution that checks the power of the government. It was established by the Constitution of the United States. The United States Congress consists of both houses of Congress and is the bicameral legislative body of the U.S. Congress normally meets in session once in a year and once in a period of three years. When there is not a regular session of Congress in session, the members are authorized to transact official business.
Congress passes a number of laws concerning various matters such as taxation, regulation of commerce, interstate commerce, naturalization, immigration, tariffs, antimonopoly, and licensing of commerce. Congress creates, modifies, and eliminates laws. It also passes resolutions, which provide guidance for the executive branch and various agencies of the Federal Government. Within the legislative branch, committees of Congress are generally responsible for examining and approving bills. There are many congressional committees and sub-committees within the Congress.
Congress keeps the laws and its procedures confidential. Certain departments or executive agencies of government have their respective committees or subcommittees concerned with particular statutes and laws. Most committees of Congress have Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, which studies and makes recommendations concerning programs to reduce the deficit of the United States Government. The Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction can be Joint Select Committee on Economic Policy, Joint Select Committee on Education and the Workforce, and Joint Select Committee on Health Care and Medicare.
The legislation that comes from Congress is sent to the president, who makes the policy decisions. The legislation is sent to the president through the U.S. Congress. Congress, acting through their committees or representatives, send their reports, recommendations, and entire bills to the president, who signs what he/she sees as being allotted to him. The legislation, when passed by the president, is then placed before the U.S. House of Representatives or Senate for further consideration and action. If the bill passes both houses, it will go to a conference between the two houses to further negotiate and iron out any differences.
When the final conference report is passed by both houses, it is then sent to the American public for their vote. Every member of Congress will be asked to cast a ballot and if they approve the bill, they will be asked to sign it. If they disapprove of it, they can either vote against it or abstain from voting. With a super-majority, the bill is passed into law and becomes a legal obligation for every citizen of the United States. There are many special committees within the Congress that are assigned with many administrative tasks and they have their own budget.
Congress also has the power to control the executive branch. Congress has oversight over executive agencies like the FDA, SEC, Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), and Department of Homeland Security. The members of Congress also have oversight over the heads of agencies that the executive implements. When the members of Congress do not approve of a regulation, the executive is forced to make changes in its implementation. As you can see, the role of Congress plays in regulating the executive branch is very important and they exercise their oversight every single day.